Gene mutation blamed where to get paper wristbandsfor lower breast cancer cure rates in China than in the West

A Personalized Blanket Or Photo Beach Towel Can Great Summer Gift! I always try to give personal gifts to the ones I love. I think that gifts like this show someone how much you care. Available a way to make gifts that are easy, cheap and fun by making homemade personalized photo gifts. With a little creativity you can never used up all your great gift ideas. You get the chance once every year to truly celebrate manually. It"s the anniversary of you, period of year of your coming into the world. So, have some fun! Do something unique for yourself for your birthday. Get motivated! Always head! Useful and practical gifts always score the most points. You could also enjoy this, it"s and can get dear ones custmo gifts, adding extra brownie points inside your bag for your personal touch and exertion. Then can be a really cool gifts you can buy your adolescent. Our favorite is the, Forbidden Fruit Speaker. An apple shaped speaker which plugs for the iphone, laptop, iPod etc when your on the move or perhaps at own home. Small enough to fit in your hand, yet loud enough to share your favorite tunes as well as mates. Lengthier do you"ll need to be the only one raving to be able to some Dizzy in the park, let your friends enjoy the beat to help. Business gifts that you should use to advertise your own business are better too. For instance you can send stationary and pen sets which get used. Promotional gifts such as key chains go over well really. There is plenty of room for a person to get creative with promotion gifts. By offering something original you will gain the interest of those that receive this sort of item from you. Try to make it something as a result parallel to your type of economic you drive. Promotional gifts, with your logo or company"s regarding them, is actually a superb way to obtain people to find your sales. Gifts can be such things as pens, coffee mugs, clothing or may portrays your company in a capable light. Remember these items need to promote your business, but also reflect an image against your own business. Strive to stay far away from low quality gifts. Keeping your customers happy and satisfied is actually. There is not doubt which usually wide associated with options come when you are looking at buying cool gifts for guys. All it requires turns out to be bit of carefulness while selecting the gift for him. Simultaneously, you can follow suggestions are so simple to get the right treasure. You can find different varieties of funky gifts for him from internet and avail attractive discounts, something which isn"t found on regular store. While buying online make positive the site is authentic provides your quality products. So, what do waiting for? Gift him to make his day is really an one.

BEIJING -- Chinese researchers claim, based on a three-year research, that gene mutation shall be blamed for the lower breast cancer cure rate in China than in the West, as it cripples the effect of a classical drug for treatment.

The mutation in a liver enzyme among East Asian people may severely impair the conversion of tamoxifen (TAM), a standard drug for breast cancer post-operation therapy in most cases, said Xu Binghe, a professor at the Cancer Hospital with Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences.

About 75 percent of breast cancer patients in China have estrogen receptors (ERs) expressed in their tumors. Nurtured by estrogen, a female hormone, the receptors can facilitate the growth of tumors, leading to their metastasis and recurrence, so these patients usually receive endocrine treatment after their operation, said Xu, an oncologist on breast cancer for more than 30 years.

"Globally, TAM is a classic drug for this type of cancer and has been used in clinical treatment for nearly half a century since the 1970s," Xu said.

According to him, TAM, a small molecule compound, can block the binding of human estrogen to tumor receptors.

"TAM looks so similar to estrogen that it can confuse the receptors, which then unites with the drugs and rejects the real estrogen," said Xu. "So to speak, TAM is like a fake key that can match the "lock" of tumors, and estrogen, the real key, instead cannot open the "door" anymore as it shall not fit in a blocked "keyhole.""

ER-positive breast cancer patients usually need to take TAM for five to 10 years after surgery. The drug has helped cut down the recurrence rate by half and the death rate by more than 30 percent. TAM is also very economical, costing less than one yuan (about 15 cents in U.S. dollar term) a day. The drug, with its effectiveness and low cost, has been enlisted in both international and domestic guidelines for breast cancer treatment.

"However, in our practice, we feel that it is not as effective on Chinese patients as it is on Westerners," Xu said. Although the overall survival rate of breast cancer patients in China has improved dramatically in recent years, it is still seven to 10 percentage points lower than that in the United States.

A special enzyme named CYP2D6 in the liver, which plays a key role in converting TAM into active and valid ingredients, has caused attention among Xu and his coworkers on the team. It has more than 100 types of gene mutations, and CYP2D6*10 is the most common polymorphism among Asian populations.

"Is this mutation crippling the effectiveness of the drug?" This question has emerged from day-to-day treatment and prompted Xu"s team to conduct a retrospective study of nearly 1,000 patients who have been treated at their hospital.

Testing their blood samples revealed that 20 percent of the patients have the CYP2D6*10 genotype with both chromosomes mutative. These patients have a lower five-year survival rate and a higher recurrence rate than others.

"It indicates that the gene mutation obviously impacts the conversion of TAM, which lowers the drug"s effectiveness to only 1 percent of the expected efficacy. In other words, to achieve the effect of one pill for ordinary patients, these cancer sufferers have to take 100 pills," said Ma Fei, a core researcher on Xu"s team from the Cancer Hospital.

The researchers also found that the effect of toremifene and aromatase inhibitors, alternatives to TAM, are not affected by the gene mutation in the CYP2D6 enzyme.

"Since alternative drugs are more expensive, there has been a long-time misunderstanding that patients who use them are more wealthy and have access to better overall medical conditions, leading to a lower cancer recurrence rate among them," Ma said. "It seems now that the gene mutation should shoulder the blame."

He noted that this study is very important for all East Asian populations, as the gene mutation happens in one in every five people while it is quite rare in Westerners.

"We can"t expect experts in America and European countries to do the research, as they don"t encounter the problem. The difficulties that China has faced can only be solved by ourselves," Ma said.

The results of the serial researches by the team were published twice in the International Journal of Cancer, the official journal of the Union for International Cancer Control, and the latest was selected as a cover article in November.

Xu and his team will, for the next step, study the feasibility of multiple alternative therapies for patients with the above gene mutation, aiming to modify and improve the treatment guidelines through more rigorous clinical research and to improve the breast cancer cure rate in China.


vinyl wristbands
printed bracelets
tyvek wristbands
wristband design
wristband sports